I♥NY is probably one of the most recognisable advertising graphics in the world.
The designer's name was Milton Glaser. The city was New York. The year was 1977. A time and place commemorated by an entire genre of movies dedicated to making it look like a horrifying place to live.
The city needed a miracle. And it kind of got one in three letters and a symbol1
It was William S. Doyle, Deputy Commissioner of the New York State Department of Commerce hired Glaser to create a logo for their marketing campaign.
In todays marketing savvy world the solution for overhauling your city's identity is a little more complex.
The Guardian UK recently published its Cities global brand survey, which "has thrown up a surprise winner and plenty of surprise losers. The resulting "brand barometer" is eye-opening: did anyone expect LA to beat New York or London? Or Tokyo and Venice to fall so flat?
The report measures two aspects of a city's brand: its "assets" - attractions, climate, infrastructure (particularly transport), safety and economic prosperity - and its "buzz", a combination of social media and media mentions.
See where your city came in the global brand survey.